MEAL in the United Nations System: Enhancing Performance, Accountability, and Learning for Sustainable Development

MEAL in the United Nations System: Enhancing Performance, Accountability, and Learning for Sustainable Development

The United Nations (UN) system plays a critical role in promoting global peace, security, and sustainable development. As the international community pursues the ambitious 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it is essential for the UN system to adopt robust Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability, and Learning (MEAL) practices to ensure its interventions are efficient, effective, and impactful. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the role and significance of MEAL within the UN system, highlighting its key components, principles, and applications across various UN entities and initiatives.

The Importance of MEAL in the United Nations System

MEAL is an integrated approach that helps organizations systematically track their progress, evaluate their performance, ensure accountability, and learn from their experiences to inform future decision-making. In the context of the UN system, MEAL serves several critical purposes, including:

  1. Enhancing the performance and impact of UN policies, programs, and projects aimed at achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and other international development targets.
  2. Ensuring transparency, accountability, and credibility in the use of resources and the delivery of results by UN entities and their partners.
  3. Facilitating learning, knowledge sharing, and innovation within the UN system and across the broader international development community.
  4. Supporting evidence-based decision-making and policy formulation at the global, regional, and national levels.

By adopting a MEAL approach, the UN system can demonstrate its commitment to sustainable development, foster trust and credibility with its stakeholders, and contribute to the global effort to achieve the 2030 Agenda.

Key Components and Principles of MEAL in the United Nations System

To effectively implement MEAL in the UN system, the following key components and principles should be considered:


Monitoring involves the systematic collection and analysis of data to track progress and performance towards the achievement of development objectives, such as the SDGs. Monitoring in the UN system should be guided by the following principles:

  • Alignment with global standards and frameworks: UN entities should ensure that their monitoring efforts are aligned with the SDG indicators, the UN System-wide Action Plan on Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment (UN-SWAP), and other relevant international frameworks and guidelines.
  • Harmonization and coordination: UN entities should collaborate and coordinate their monitoring activities to avoid duplication, reduce transaction costs, and enhance the comparability and consistency of data.
  • Inclusiveness and participation: UN entities should involve a wide range of stakeholders in their monitoring processes, including governments, civil society organizations, the private sector, and beneficiaries, to ensure that monitoring data is representative, credible, and relevant.


Evaluation involves the systematic assessment of the effectiveness, efficiency, relevance, and sustainability of policies, programs, and projects. Evaluation in the UN system should be guided by the following principles:

  • Independence and impartiality: UN entities should ensure that evaluations are conducted independently and impartially, to maintain their credibility and integrity.
  • Utilization-focused: UN entities should ensure that evaluations are designed and conducted with a clear purpose and intended use, to maximize their relevance, utility, and impact.
  • Ethics and human rights: UN entities should ensure that evaluations are conducted ethically and in accordance with human rights principles, to protect the dignity, well-being, and rights of all stakeholders, especially vulnerable and marginalized groups.


Accountability involves the transparent reporting and communication of commitments, actions, results, and resources to stakeholders. Accountability in the UN system should be guided by the following principles:

  • Transparency and openness: UN entities should ensure that their reporting processes are transparent, open, and accessible to all stakeholders, in line with the UN’s commitment to a “culture of openness.”
  • Results-based management: UN entities should adopt a results-based management approach, focusing on the achievement of outcomes and impacts, rather than just outputs and activities.
  • Mutual accountability: UN entities should recognize and promote the principle of mutual accountability, acknowledging that all stakeholders have shared responsibilities and obligations in the pursuit of sustainable development.


Learning involves the systematic reflection on and analysis of experiences, to inform future decision-making and improve performance. Learning in the UN system should be guided by the following principles:

  • Continuous improvement: UN entities should foster a culture of continuous improvement and learning, by regularly reviewing their strategies, processes, and practices, and adapting them based on evidence and feedback.
  • Knowledge sharing: UN entities should actively share knowledge, lessons, and good practices, both within and outside the UN system, to enhance collective learning and innovation.
  • Partnerships and collaboration: UN entities should seek to build partnerships and collaborate with other stakeholders, including academia, think tanks, civil society organizations, and the private sector, to broaden their knowledge base and enhance their learning capacities.

MEAL in Practice: Examples from the United Nations System

Several UN entities have adopted MEAL approaches in their work, demonstrating the value and potential of MEALin the pursuit of sustainable development. Some notable examples include:

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

UNDP, the UN’s global development network, has integrated MEAL into its programmatic and operational activities through its Strategic Plan, which emphasizes results-based management, monitoring, evaluation, and learning. UNDP has established an Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) to ensure the quality, independence, and utility of its evaluations, and has also developed a Global Evaluation Policy to guide its evaluation activities. Additionally, UNDP has created the UNDP Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC) as a knowledge platform for sharing evaluation findings, lessons, and good practices across the organization and with its partners.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

UNICEF, the UN agency responsible for promoting children’s rights and well-being, has adopted a comprehensive MEAL framework to guide its work, as outlined in its Strategic Plan. UNICEF’s Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) function is governed by its M&E Policy, which emphasizes the importance of evidence-based decision-making, accountability, and learning. UNICEF has also established an Evaluation Office to provide independent and impartial evaluations of its programs and activities, and has created a Global Evaluation Database (GED) to facilitate the dissemination and use of evaluation knowledge and findings.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

UNHCR, the UN agency mandated to protect and support refugees, has integrated MEAL into its operations through its Results-Based Management (RBM) approach, which focuses on the achievement of outcomes and impacts for refugees and other persons of concern. UNHCR has developed an RBM Guide to provide practical guidance and tools for its staff and partners in implementing MEAL, and has established a Policy Development and Evaluation Service (PDES) to conduct independent evaluations, policy research, and learning activities. Furthermore, UNHCR has created a Learning Platform to support knowledge sharing and capacity building in MEAL among its staff and partners.

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women)

UN Women, the UN entity dedicated to gender equality and women’s empowerment, has integrated MEAL into its work through its Strategic Plan and its Corporate Evaluation Policy. UN Women has established an Independent Evaluation Service (IES) to ensure the quality, credibility, and utility of its evaluations, and has developed a Global Evaluation Database (GED) to facilitate the sharing and use of evaluation findings and lessons. UN Women has also created a Knowledge Gateway for Women’s Economic Empowerment, which serves as a global platform for knowledge sharing, learning, and collaboration on gender-related issues.


MEAL is an essential tool for the United Nations system in its efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and promote a more just, equitable, and sustainable world. By integrating MEAL into their strategies, policies, and practices, UN entities can enhance their performance, accountability, and learning, and contribute more effectively to the global development agenda. As the international community continues to face complex and interconnected challenges, the importance of robust MEAL practices in the UN system will only grow, as they provide a solid foundation for evidence-based decision-making, innovation, and collective action towards a better future for all.